# elastic material properties

But the other distinction I would make is in regards to what happens once it starts to yield. A spring is an example of an elastic object - when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which tends to bring it back to its original length. Types of elastic materials. They are usually used to model mechanical behaviors and empty and full elastomers. The linear elastic modulus of the network is observed to be Gâ²â0.02Pa for timescales 0.1sâ¤tâ¤10s, making it one of the softest elastic biomaterials known. The elastic behavior of objects that undergo finite deformations has been described using a number of models, such as Cauchy elastic material models, Hypoelastic material models, and Hyperelastic material models. As detailed in the main Hypoelastic material article, specific formulations of hypoelastic models typically employ so-called objective rates so that the For the description of the elastic properties of linear objects like wires, rods, columns which are either stretched or compressed, a convenient parameter is the ratio of the stress to the strain, a parameter called the Young's modulus of the material. Newton's Second Law says that the force applied to a particle will be balanced by the particle's mass and the acceleration of â¦ As such, microscopic factors affecting the free energy, such as the equilibrium distance between molecules, can affect the elasticity of materials: for instance, in inorganic materials, as the equilibrium distance between molecules at 0 K increases, the bulk modulus decreases. in which A material is said to be Cauchy-elastic if the Cauchy stress tensor Ï is a function of the deformation gradient F alone: It is generally incorrect to state that Cauchy stress is a function of merely a strain tensor, as such a model lacks crucial information about material rotation needed to produce correct results for an anisotropic medium subjected to vertical extension in comparison to the same extension applied horizontally and then subjected to a 90-degree rotation; both these deformations have the same spatial strain tensors yet must produce different values of the Cauchy stress tensor. Linear elasticity is widely used in the design and analysis of structures such as beams, plates and sheets. There is a tensor-valued function A model is hyperelastic if and only if it is possible to express the Cauchy stress tensor as a function of the deformation gradient via a relationship of the form, This formulation takes the energy potential (W) as a function of the deformation gradient ( [11] The effect of temperature on elasticity is difficult to isolate, because there are numerous factors affecting it. When an elastic material is deformed due to an external force, it experiences internal resistance to the deformation and restores it to its original state if the external force is no longer applied. When an external force is applied to a body, the body falls apart. Using the appropriate elastic material properties for your simulations is of utmost importance to generate meaningful and accurate results. For many materials, linear elastic models do not correctly describe the observed behavior of the material. 20- Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), 22- Halogenated butyl rubbers (CIIR, BIIR), We use cookies to provide our online service. For chemically resistant plastic, view our Chemical Resistance of Plastics chart. These crosslinks create an elastic nature and provide recovery characteristics to the finished material. t The various moduli apply to different kinds of deformation. Hyperelasticity is primarily used to determine the response of elastomer-based objects such as gaskets and of biological materials such as soft tissues and cell membranes. L Specify elastic material properties. The most common example of this kind of material is rubber, whose stress-strain relationship can be defined as non-linear, elastic, isotropic, incomprehensible and generally independent of its stress ratio. In engineering, the elasticity of a material is quantified by the elastic modulus such as the Young's modulus, bulk modulus or shear modulus which measure the amount of stress needed to achieve a unit of strain; a higher modulus indicates that the material is harder to deform. As a special case, this criterion includes a Cauchy elastic material, for which the current stress depends only on the current configuration rather than the history of past configurations. ( By also requiring satisfaction of material objectivity, the energy potential may be alternatively regarded as a function of the Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( G Under larger strains, or strains applied for longer periods of time, these fluids may start to flow like a viscous liquid. Theyâre also stable under heat and pressure. Elastic materials are of great importance to society since many of them are used to make clothes, tires, automotive spare parts, etc. These materials are also called Green elastic materials. Linear elasticity is used widely in the design and analysis of structures such as beams, plates and shells, and sandwich composites. This relationship is known as Hooke's law. For instance, the bulk modulus of a material is dependent on the form of its lattice, its behavior under expansion, as well as the vibrations of the molecules, all of which are dependent on temperature. This theory is also the basis of much of fracture mechanics. = This is in contrast to plasticity, in which the object fails to do so and instead remains in its deformed state. There are various elastic moduli, such as Young's modulus, the shear modulus, and the bulk modulus, all of which are measures of the inherent elastic properties of a material as a resistance to deformation under an applied load. For even higher stresses, materials exhibit plastic behavior, that is, they deform irreversibly and do not return to their original shape after stress is no longer applied. Epub 2005 Mar 25. If the material is isotropic, the linearized stressâstrain relationship is called Hooke's law, which is often presumed to apply up to the elastic limit for most metals or crystalline materials whereas nonlinear elasticity is generally required to model large deformations of rubbery materials even in the elastic range. It also implies that the force of a body (such as gravity) and inertial forces can not affect the properties of the material. Lycra Uses Lycra is almost always mixed with another fabric -- even the stretchiest leotards and bathing suits are less than 40-percent Lycra mixed with cotton or polyester. The elastic properties of most solid intentions tend to fall between these two extremes. A hypoelastic material can be rigorously defined as one that is modeled using a constitutive equation satisfying the following two criteria:[9]. , The stiffness constant is therefore not strictly a material property. Its SI unit is also the pascal (Pa). For these materials, the elasticity limit marks the end of their elastic behavior and the beginning of their plastic behavior. In physics and materials science, elasticity is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. If only these two original criteria are used to define hypoelasticity, then hyperelasticity would be included as a special case, which prompts some constitutive modelers to append a third criterion that specifically requires a hypoelastic model to not be hyperelastic (i.e., hypoelasticity implies that stress is not derivable from an energy potential). In other terms, it relates the stresses and the strains in the material. Last Post; Apr 27, 2010; Replies 2 Views 3K. Use our interactive properties table below to explore by property group, sort, or compare two or more plastic materials. is the material rate of the Cauchy stress tensor, and Rubber-like solids with elastic properties are called elastomers. For weaker materials, the stress or stress on its elasticity limit results in its fracture. such that Last Post; Dec 21, 2016; Replies 3 Views 894. Elasticity is the ability of an object or material to resume its normal shape after being stretched or compressed. The elastic modulus (E), defined as the stress applied to the material divided by the strain, is one way to measure and quantify the elasticity of a material. {\displaystyle {\dot {\boldsymbol {\sigma }}}} To compute the modulus of elastic, simply divide the stress by the strain in the material. As noted above, for small deformations, most elastic materials such as springs exhibit linear elasticity and can be described by a linear relation between the stress and strain. 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