when did mozart die
And in the following year Mozart held a party in honor of Haydn and played all six Haydn quartets, composed by Mozart. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on 5 December 1791 at the age of 35. 299/297c.. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's was the sole-surviving son of Leopold and . There were prospects of employment in Mannheim, but they came to nothing, and Mozart left for Paris on 14 March 1778 to continue his search. Composers have paid homage to Mozart by writing sets of variations on his themes. , Mozart was raised a Roman Catholic and remained a devout member of the church throughout his life. Between April and December 1775, Mozart developed an enthusiasm for violin concertos, producing a series of five (the only ones he ever wrote), which steadily increased in their musical sophistication. He focused instead on his career as a piano soloist and writer of concertos. Solomon considers his three closest friends to have been Gottfried von Jacquin, Count August Hatzfeld, and Sigmund Barisani; others included his elder colleague Joseph Haydn, singers Franz Xaver Gerl and Benedikt Schack, and the horn player Joseph Leutgeb.  More important is the influence Mozart had on composers of later generations. 'Did I not say before, that I was writing this Requiem for myself?' A recent study by researchers at the University of Amsterdam in The Netherlands claims that the maestro died of … Mozart died on December 5th, 1791. Mozart had health problems throughout his life, suffering from smallpox, tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, typhoid fever, rheumatism, and gum disease. Weber family. Within six years of Salieri's death, the Russian writer Pushkin wrote a play, Mozart and Salieri, which portrayed the danger of envy.  The family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. The cause of Mozart's death cannot be known with certainty. In London and Italy, the galant style was in the ascendent: simple, light music with a mania for cadencing; an emphasis on tonic, dominant, and subdominant to the exclusion of other harmonies; symmetrical phrases; and clearly articulated partitions in the overall form of movements. 40 in G minor, K. 550; and the opera Don Giovanni. Home » Piano History » How Did Mozart Die. Ever since the surge in his reputation after his death, studying his scores has been a standard part of classical musicians' training.. How did Mozart die? Records show that he was sealed in a wooden coffin and buried in a plot along with 4-5 other people; a wooden marker was used to identify the grave. One of the greatest composers in Western music history, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a versatile child prodigy.Not only did Mozart begin composing at the age of five, but he was also a multi-instrumentalist, widely known for his ability to play the violin and the piano. These forms were not new, but Mozart advanced their technical sophistication and emotional reach. In 1784, Mozart joined the Freemasons, apparently embracing the teachings of that group. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky wrote his Orchestral Suite No. His elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart (1751–1829), nicknamed "Nannerl". the mother's oath]. His health deteriorated on 20 November, at which point he became bedridden, suffering from swelling, pain, and vomiting. He composed more than 600 works, many of which are acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on December 5, at age Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, widely recognized as one of the , Salzburg, archbishopric of Salzburg [Austria]—died December 5, , His father, Leopold, came from a family of … Mozart went there to hear it, and received a commission to write an opera for the next season, with a fee of 100 ducats. 17 18 19.  Four years later, he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. , While Mozart was in Paris, his father was pursuing opportunities of employment for him in Salzburg. When a doctor drew blood and placed a cool cloth on his forehead, Mozart lost consciousness. So how did Mozart Die? , In December 1787, Mozart finally obtained a steady post under aristocratic patronage. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - The Italian tours: Mastery of the Italian operatic style was a prerequisite for a successful international composing career, and the Austrian political dominion over northern Italy ensured that doors would be open there to Mozart. The diarist Karl Zinzendorf recorded on 6 December that there had been "mild weather and frequent mist". A Review from the Bicentennial of His Death, Edward N. Guillery, 1992. When money was there, he spent it liberally. Maria Anna (Nannerl) How many of his siblings survived? See, for example: Temperley, Nicholas.  Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught. One of his letters from Paris hints at a possible post as an organist at Versailles, but Mozart was not interested in such an appointment. Only much later, in the 1920s, did scientists identify a clear link between vitamin D, sunlight, and good health. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Composers Classical Music Celebrity Births Deaths and Ages History, Politics & Society. Mozart died on December 5th, 1791. Up to now, the actual cause of his death is still vague. One such theory was the work of Mathilde Ludendorff, wife of the German general Erich Ludendorff. Mozart died on 5 December, 1791, two to three months into the vitamin D winter." Did Mozart Die of Kidney Disease? Mozart had been sickly for years. The influence of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") period in music, with its brief foreshadowing of the Romantic era, is evident in the music of both composers at that time. He is considered among the greatest classical composers of all time, and his influence on Western music is profound. There are a range of views on each of these points, many of which have varied radically over time. Born in Salzburg, in the Holy Roman Empire, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. (Wikimedia Commons: Johann Nepomuk della Croce/Thomas Hardy/Christian Horneman) The circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. If, as later reports say, no mourners attended, that too is consistent with Viennese burial customs at the time; later Otto Jahn (1856) wrote that Salieri, Süssmayr, van Swieten and two other musicians were present. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on Dec. 5, 1791, and it took a whole week for a Berlin newspaper to announce that he had been poisoned. He was mentally occupied with the task of finishing his Requiem, but the evidence that he dictated passages to his student Franz Xaver Süssmayr is minimal.. As Abert himself notes later in this chapter, Mozart's health improved in October and early November.. On 5 December 1791, the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died at his home in Vienna, Austria at the age of 35. Additionally, she organized a series of concerts of Mozart's music and the publication of many of her husband's works. In 2002, on the one-year anniversary of the September 11th attacks, choirs around the world sang … In Paris, Mannheim, and Vienna he met with other compositional influences, as well as the avant-garde capabilities of the Mannheim orchestra. What was Mozart's full name? In 1787, Mozart's father died.  The Vienna Observatory kept weather records and recorded for 6 December a temperature ranging from 37.9 to 38.8 degrees Fahrenheit (2.8 °C–3.8 °C), with "a weak east wind at all ... times of the day". , Following her husband's death, Constanze addressed the issue of providing financial security for her family; the Mozarts had two young children, and Mozart had died with outstanding debts. ", Mozart usually worked long and hard, finishing compositions at a tremendous pace as deadlines approached. They moved to an expensive apartment, with a yearly rent of 460 florins. Luxury – and Abject Poverty. In his later operas, he employed subtle changes in instrumentation, orchestral texture, and tone colour, for emotional depth and to mark dramatic shifts. Altogether it would not cover ten pages; some of it is vague, and some downright unreliable. Records show that he was sealed in a wooden coffin and buried in a plot along with 4-5 other people; … In Munich, he again encountered Aloysia, now a very successful singer, but she was no longer interested in him. This tour lasted from December 1769 to March 1771.  Mozart also wrote scatological music, a series of canons that he sang with his friends. In 1776, he turned his efforts to piano concertos, culminating in the E♭ concerto K. 271 of early 1777, considered by critics to be a breakthrough work. For other uses, see, Anonymous portrait of the child Mozart, possibly by, Composed 9 October 1770 for admission to the, Both performed by the Fulda Symphonic Orchestra, Conductor: Simon Schindler, 1773–77: Employment at the Salzburg court. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on 5 December 1791 at the age of 35. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart[a] (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart,[b] was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Movement: 1.  Mozart faced a challenging task in getting his father's permission for the marriage. The situation worsened in 1775 when the court theatre was closed, especially since the other theatre in Salzburg was primarily reserved for visiting troupes. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart (1719–1787) and Anna Maria, née Pertl (1720–1778), at Getreidegasse 9 in Salzburg. Neither visit was successful, though the Munich journey resulted in a popular success with the premiere of Mozart's opera La finta giardiniera. Mozart decided to settle in Vienna as a freelance performer and composer. This does not name the actual disease. Mozart died in 1791 at the age of 35. Mozart(VWF053) was born on November 8, 2002, into the Whiskers, to parents Flower and Zaphod, the dominant couple at the time. Although the evidence is inconclusive, it appears that wealthy patrons in Hungary and Amsterdam pledged annuities to Mozart in return for the occasional composition. Study Suggests Strep, Phys.org, August 19, 2009 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart who was an Austrian composer genius died of a short illness on 5 December 1791, at the age of 35. Mozart had been lying in bed for several weeks when, on December 4, 1791, his health deteriorated severely. Nonetheless, we do know that he became ill on November 22 and died on December 5, 1791, one of many during a fever epidemic. In Italy, he encountered the Italian overture and opera buffa, both of which deeply affected the evolution of his practice. Mozart did indeed soon meet the Emperor, who eventually was to support his career substantially with commissions and a part-time position. In the main biography article of the Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia, Ruth Halliwell writes of the decline-and-despair account: While later sources describe [Mozart] as working feverishly on [his Requiem], filled with premonitions of his own death, these accounts are hard to reconcile with the high spirits of his letters from most of November. As a result, Constanze became financially secure over time.. As Mozart's compositions flourished, his debts did too; money always seemed a bit tight for him. To begin with, Mozart didn't collapse on the premiere night of "The Magic Flute" nor was he brought back to his apartment by Salieri nor did he die the next day. His father was a talented violinist and composer who regularly performed in churches and noble courts. 2015-08-11 18:44:08 2015-08-11 18:44:08. 's proposed diagnoses, see, John Jenkins, "Mozart, portrait and myth,", Mozart's financial condition had improved considerably during the year 1791; see, "Vitamin D deficiency contributed to Mozart's death", "Dies irae, dies illa – Day of wrath, day of wailing: Notes on the commissioning, origin and completion of Mozart's Requiem (KV 626)", "Still no Rest for the Requiem: An Enigma Reconsidered", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death_of_Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart&oldid=998683928, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 15:19. Solomon writes that during this period, Mozart created "a harmonious connection between an eager composer-performer and a delighted audience, which was given the opportunity of witnessing the transformation and perfection of a major musical genre". HE WROTE HIS FIRST OPERA AT 11.  Haydn in 1785 told Mozart's father: "I tell you before God, and as an honest man, your son is the greatest composer known to me by person and repute, he has taste and what is more the greatest skill in composition. He chose to stay in Vienna, where he achieved fame but little financial security. Mozart's wife was not present. Some of Beethoven's works have direct models in comparable works by Mozart, and he wrote cadenzas (WoO 58) to Mozart's D minor piano concerto K. 466. She successfully appealed to the Emperor on 11 December 1791 for a widow's pension due to her as a result of Mozart's service to the Emperor as a part-time chamber composer. There is a small quantity of direct eye-witness testimony concerning the last illness and death, and a larger quantity of reporting of what eye witnesses are alleged to have said. When Nannerl was 7, she began keyboard lessons with her father, while her three-year-old brother looked on. PHILADELPHIA — For more than two centuries, the music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart has endured — as has the speculation about what led to his sudden death at age 35 on Dec. 5, 1791. He often performed as a pianist, notably in a competition before the Emperor with Muzio Clementi on 24 December 1781, and he soon "had established himself as the finest keyboard player in Vienna". It was an individual grave, not a communal grave; but after ten years the city had the right to dig it up and use it for a later burial. One reason was his low salary, 150 florins a year; Mozart longed to compose operas, and Salzburg provided only rare occasions for these. The chances are, however, that you've only ever heard of Salieri because he happened to be the arch-rival of the irrepressible Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The last three—K.  Mozart is reported to have stated, "Yes I see I was ill to have had such an absurd idea of having taken poison, give me back the Requiem and I will go on with it. The "common grave" referred to above is a term for a grave belonging to a citizen not of the aristocracy. So what are the real causes of Mozart’s death? Mozart's medical history is like an inverted pyramid: a small corpus of primary documentation supports a large body of secondary literature. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was doing poorly on the eve of December 4. Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theopilus. They were at the first bars of the Lacrimosa when Mozart began to weep bitterly, laid the score on one side, and eleven hours later, at one o'clock in the morning (of 5 December 1791, as is well known), departed this life.. Colloredo's wish to prevent Mozart from performing outside his establishment was in other cases, however, carried through, raising the composer's anger; one example was a chance to perform before the Emperor at Countess Thun's for a fee equal to half of his yearly Salzburg salary.  Whether these played any role in his demise cannot be determined. An old friend of Mozart’s, Emanuel Schikaneder, had in 1789 set up a company to perform singspiels in a suburban theatre, and in 1791 he engaged Mozart to compose a score to his Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute); Mozart worked on it during the spring and early summer.Then he received another commission, anonymously delivered, for a requiem, to be composed under conditions of secrecy. Leutgeb and Mozart carried on a curious kind of friendly mockery, often with Leutgeb as the butt of Mozart's practical jokes. The circumstances of his death have attracted much research and speculation.  During this visit, Niemetschek wrote, "he was pale and expression was sad, although his good humour was often shown in merry jest with his friends. Mozart was just 35 when he passed away. Examination of the skull suggested a premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. , As Slonimsky notes, the tale was widely adopted and incorporated into Mozart biographies, but Deiner's description of the weather is contrary to records kept of the previous day.  During this trip, Wolfgang met many musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers. Individuals present at the time of Mozart's death eventually committed their memories to writing, either on their own or through interviews by others. In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto (1770), which was performed with success. In 1787, the young Ludwig van Beethoven spent several weeks in Vienna, hoping to study with Mozart.  His first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his initiative and came as a surprise to Leopold, who eventually gave up composing when his son's musical talents became evident. What did Mozart really die of? He also wrote a well-known book called, A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing.Mozart's older sister also played the keyboard, and together, they would travel the country to perform.  In London as a child, he met J. C. Bach and heard his music. This rumor, however, was not proven to be true, as the signs of illness Mozart displayed did not indicate poisoning. In 1944, two thirds of the Tanzmeisterhaus were destroyed in the bombardments of World War II.  Mozart finally returned to Salzburg on 15 January 1779 and took up his new appointment, but his discontent with Salzburg remained undiminished. The annual salary was 450 florins, but he was reluctant to accept. Franz Fridolin Weber (1733–1779), married Cäcilia Cordula Stamm (1727–1793) . In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier. And as he spoke these words, 'suddenly he vomited —it gushed out of him in an arc— it was brown, and he was dead. At the time he began composing, European music was dominated by the style galant, a reaction against the highly evolved intricacy of the Baroque. ', Constanze attempted to cheer her husband by persuading him to give up work on the Requiem for a while, encouraging him instead to complete the "Freimaurerkantate" (K. 623), composed to celebrate the opening of a new Masonic temple for Mozart's own lodge.  There had been delays in calling a doctor—probably, according to Halliwell, because of a lack of funds. Home » Piano History » How Did Mozart Die. Working with Constanze, Franz Niemetschek wrote a biography as well. The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. 39, 40, and 41, all from 1788), and the last of the three Da Ponte operas, Così fan tutte, premiered in 1790. For unambiguous identification of works by Mozart, a Köchel catalogue number is used. , The common belief that Mozart was buried in a pauper's grave is without foundation. An autopsy was never performed on Mozart, although Dr. Eduard Guldener von Lobes, who examined his body, found no evidence of foul play. See Biographies of Mozart. Friends took care of the burial. All too often later writers have used this data uncritically to support pet theories. There is a common rumor that Antonio Salieri, who was an average composer that time, had poisoned Mozart because he was jealous of him. 29 in A major K. 201 has a contrapuntal main theme in its first movement, and experimentation with irregular phrase lengths. For instance, the important biography by Hermann Abert largely follows this account. When did Mozart die? In both, it is suggested that Salieri's jealousy of Mozart led him to poison the younger composer. Mozart was baptised the day after his birth, at St. Rupert's Cathedralin Salzburg. Mozart's last year was, until his final illness struck, a time of high productivity—and by some accounts, one of personal recovery. By mid-1788, Mozart and his family had moved from central Vienna to the suburb of Alsergrund. Less than four years later, Mozart died of miliary fever in 1791. 35 years of age in 1791. , In a 2000 publication, a team of two physicians (Faith T. Fitzgerald, Philip A. Mackowiak) and a musicologist (Neal Zaslaw) reviewed the historical evidence and tentatively opted for a diagnosis of rheumatic fever. , Mozart fell ill while in Prague for the premiere, on 6 September 1791, of his opera La clemenza di Tito, which was written in that same year on commission for the Emperor's coronation festivities. Fortunately, Figaro, like Die Entführung, was repeated with brilliant success at Prague. Also accepted is the fact that one Franz Xavier Süssmayr, a composer who would otherwise have faded into the annals of time, finished what the master could not. , He enjoyed billiards and dancing and kept pets: a canary, a starling, a dog, and a horse for recreational riding.  The nadir of the visit occurred when Mozart's mother was taken ill and died on 3 July 1778. Constanze was wracked by grief. An amazing fact is that Mozart said to his wife that the Requiem was The most reasonable cause of Mozart's death is rheumatic fever.  Mozart began to borrow money, most often from his friend and fellow mason Michael Puchberg; "a pitiful sequence of letters pleading for loans" survives. How Did Mozart Die? In that same year, 1782, Mozart wrote another very successful opera: Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio"). Mozart died on December 5, 1791, at age 35. A recent study by researchers at the University of Amsterdam in The Netherlands claims that the maestro died of … By the age of 5, Mozart already wrote a miniature allegro (K. 1b) and andante (K. 1a). Who was his sister? Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to the skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. His sister-in-law Sophie Weber, in her 1825 account, makes the implication. On 25 August 1791 Mozart left Vienna to Prague to supervise his new opera - Such bacterial infections are easier to fight off when vitamin D levels are normal. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in autumn 1791 at age 35 in Vienna. The Weber family became connected with the Mozart family through the marriage of Wolfgang Amadeus to Constanze.The family were from Zell im Wiesental, Germany and included: .  Ah, now I will leave you unprovided for.' When he arrived, he ordered cold compresses put on Mozart's feverish brow, but these "provided such a shock that he did not regain consciousness again before he died. What Killed Mozart? Leopold and Anna Maria. This rumor, however, was not proven to be true, as the signs of illness Mozart displayed did not indicate poisoning. , He experienced great satisfaction in the public success of some of his works, notably The Magic Flute (which was performed several times in the short period between its premiere and Mozart's death) and the Little Masonic Cantata K. 623, premiered on 17 November 1791. In Austria this disease was also called "Wassersucht" (dropsy/edema).  Maynard Solomon and others have suggested that Mozart was suffering from depression, and it seems his output slowed. Mozart was by then burning with fever and after cold compresses were applied to his head, he lost consciousness, never to reawaken. Aloysia, who had earlier rejected Mozart's suit, was now married to the actor and artist Joseph Lange. Researchers have offered almost 200 possible reasons for Mozart's death. The cause of death was recorded as severe miliary fever, a vague description. As for why Constanze might have been "prompted by complicated motives both personal and financial" (Eisen), Halliwell contends that "Constanze and Sophie were not objective witnesses, because Constanze's continuing quest for charity gave her reasons to disseminate sentimental and sensationalist views. When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played together in an impromptu string quartet. Although it is 'authentic' in the sense that it derives from those who witnessed Mozart's death, or were close to him, it is not necessarily accurate. hear! The courtship did not go entirely smoothly; surviving correspondence indicates that Mozart and Constanze briefly separated in April 1782. However, Süssmayr's handwriting is in the original manuscript of the Requiem and Sophie Weber did claim to recall that Mozart gave instructions to Süssmayr.. 1786 saw the successful premiere of The Marriage of Figaro in Vienna. This led to further opera commissions. Answer. Clarity, balance, and transparency are the hallmarks of his work, but simplistic notions of its delicacy mask the exceptional power of his finest masterpieces, such as the Piano Concerto No. The composer had many friends and admirers in Salzburg and had the opportunity to work in many genres, including symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, masses, serenades, and a few minor operas. Unfortunately, at a young age of 35, Mozart died. He wrote a great deal of religious music, including large-scale masses, as well as dances, divertimenti, serenades, and other forms of light entertainment.. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in autumn 1791 at age 35 in Vienna. This modest income became important to Mozart when hard times arrived.  Salzburg was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in the Holy Roman Empire (today in Austria). Biographer Niemetschek relates a vaguely similar account, leaving out a rehearsal: On the day of his death he asked for the score to be brought to his bedside. These began with an exhibition in 1762 at the court of Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, and at the Imperial Courts in Vienna and Prague. via GIPHY , Mozart became acquainted with members of the famous orchestra in Mannheim, the best in Europe at the time. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart who was an Austrian composer genius died of a short illness on 5 December 1791, at the age of 35. Solomon characterizes Mozart's resignation as a "revolutionary step", and it significantly altered the course of his life.. , With substantial returns from his concerts and elsewhere, Mozart and his wife adopted a rather luxurious lifestyle. The following month, permission was granted, but in a grossly insulting way: the composer was dismissed literally "with a kick in the arse", administered by the archbishop's steward, Count Arco.  The concerts were very popular, and the concertos he premiered at them are still firm fixtures in the repertoire. This time Mozart’s mother and sister remained at home, and the family correspondence provides a full account … But did Salieri really murder his fellow composer? Da Ponte furnished a libretto, founded on Tirso de Molina's tale, El Convidado de piedra, and entitled Il Don Giovanni. Kelly remembered him at a rehearsal: "[He] was on the stage with his crimson pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat, giving the time of the music to the orchestra." He was the youngest of seven children, five of whom died in infancy. At 1am on December 5 he died suddenly and unexpectedly. Leopold became the orchestra's deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. An anecdote from Constanze is related by Niemetschek: On his return to Vienna, his indisposition increased visibly and made him gloomily depressed. From this point on, scholars are all agreed that Mozart was indeed very sick, and he died about two weeks later, on December 5. But they acknowledge the existence of competing medical theories. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of a chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting Mozart experienced in 1790 and 1791. These few people with their umbrellas stood round the bier, which then taken via the Grosse Schullerstrasse to the St. Marx Cemetery. I would be so happy if I could whip through my opera for him and then play a fugue or two, for that's what he likes.. After that, the property was sold several times. Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn (K. 387, K. 421, K. 428, K. 458, K. 464, and K. 465) date from the period 1782 to 1785, and are judged to be a response to Haydn's Opus 33 set from 1781. Since his death, there have been countless theories as to what constituted severe miliary fever. ... To be sure, Mozart was under the weather in Prague.  Of his voice, his wife later wrote that it "was a tenor, rather soft in speaking and delicate in singing, but when anything excited him, or it became necessary to exert it, it was both powerful and energetic. His facial complexion was pitted, a reminder of his childhood case of smallpox. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart (1719–1787) and Anna Maria, née Pertl (1720–1778), at Getreidegasse 9 in Salzburg. Mozart scholarship long followed the accounts of early biographers, which proceeded in large part from the recorded memories of his widow Constanze and her sister Sophie Weber as they were recorded in the biographies by Franz Niemetschek and Georg Nikolaus von Nissen.  They had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility, and they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold (London, summer 1764), then both children (The Hague, autumn 1765). hört! For Colloredo, this was simply a matter of wanting his musical servant to be at hand (Mozart indeed was required to dine in Colloredo's establishment with the valets and cooks. , In his early years, Wolfgang's father was his only teacher. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a rapidly maturing composer. Mozart managed to conduct a few performances of "The Magic Flute" until his health wore away and he was confined to bed.
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